Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 shōrinji-kenpō) a system for self-improvement and training (行: gyo or discipline) with many similarities to Shaolin kungfu, including using the same first three kanji. It was established in 1947 by Doshin So (宗 道臣 Sō Dōshin), a Japanese martial artist.
Shorinji Kempo is a system of "self-defense and training" (護身錬鍛: goshin-rentan), "mental training " (精神修養: seishin-shūyō) and "promoting health" (健康増進: kenkō-zōshin), whose training methods are based on the concept that "spirit and body are not separable" (心身一如: shinshin-ichinyo) and that it is integral to "train both body and spirit" (拳禅一如: kenzen ichinyo). Through employing a well organized technical training schedule, (科目表: kamoku-hyō), Shorinji Kempo claims to help the practitioner"establish oneself" (自己確立: jiko-kakuritsu) and to promote "mutual comfort" (自他共楽: jita-kyōraku'). The philosophy and techniques of Shorinji Kempo are outlined in their handbook, (少林寺拳法教範: Shōrinji-kenpō-kyōhan).
The organization of Shorinji Kempo group is divided into 5 entities:
Religious entity (金剛禅総本山少林寺: Kongō-zen Sōhon-zan Shōrinji),
Foundation entity Shorinji Kempo Foundation Federation(一般財団法人少林寺拳法連盟: Ippan-zaidan-hōjin Shōrinji-kempō Renmei),
Educational entity Zenrin Gakuen College(学校法人禅林学園: Gakkō-hōjin Zenrin Gakuen),
Global entity World Shorinji Kempo Organization, WSKO (少林寺拳法世界連合: Shōrinji-kenpō Sekai Rengō),
Intellectual property entity (Shorinji Kempo Unity).
The relationship between these 5 entities is very close because of the unique fusion of religion, budo and education. (source: web site of Shorinji Kempo Foundation Federation and Shorinji Kempo Kyohan written by Doshin So)
There are two sides of Shorinji Kempo which are believed to be true budō (武道) and educational system. As the latter, the organization is well known among boys and girls for their mental training institution as well as body training facilities dōjō (道場).
Doshin So as the founder of Shorinji Kempo wanted to establish not only an organization which incorporated mental and physical training but also wanted to educate Japanese people who had been completely demoralised by World War II/ Pacific Rim War. His aim was to defuse those who had lost their way and rebuild Japan for the future. It is said that he tried to teach philosophy based on the original buddhism and zen but no one followed him. Then he thought to follow Bodhidharma who was believed to be the originator of zen as the mental training and ekkin-gyō (易筋行) as the body training according to his book. Both of these are later to become the main training methods of Shorinji Kempo.
Technically, Shorinji Kempo has a whole set of defense techniques but the demonstration known as embu (演武) is the commonly demonstrated technique. It is usually performed by 2 persons and called kumi-embu (組演武). The embu consists of 6 sections and each section includes a series of techniques which are either gōhō (剛法) or jūhō (柔法). During the embu, one person attacks and another person defends, they then swap roles and repeat the technique immediately. Each technique is known as hien (飛燕) or flying swallow which represents speed and smoothness of those techniques. The embu is occasionally performed wearing a black gown hōi (法衣) at the beginning ceremony of annual taikai (大会) or convention.
The relationship between Shorinji Kempo and Song Shan Shaolin Temple
The name "Shōrinji" is a literal reading of the Chinese word "Shaolin Temple" from the Shaolin Monastery in Song Shan district (嵩山少林寺: Sūzan-shōrinji) in Henan Province (河南省) in China. Doshin So inherited the title of the 21st master of the Giwamon-ken (義和門拳) system, which is believed to have been used during the revolt of Giwadan-school (義和団乃乱) or the Boxer Rebellion for the defense of Buddhist priests in 1900 and 1901.
Also, Doshin So was very much impressed to see paintings on the wall of Byakue-den (白衣殿) chapel at Shaolin Temple. The style of the buddhist priests who are practicing the martial arts was very fresh and vital to him. He thought it was the origin of the existing martial arts techniques in China. (source: a book "Hiden Shorinji Kempo" 秘伝少林寺拳法「光文社」written by Doshin So, published by Kobun-sha Kappa Books)
Dōshin Sō (born in 1911) spent his younger ages in northern China, as an intelligence agent of the Japanese Army to collect military information during the war. During his stay, he met master Chen (陳 良) who was an expert of Giwamon-ken. Learning his techniques, Dōshin Sō traveled Manchuria on his mission and duty and learned more about existing Chinese martial arts. Then master Wen (文 太宗) took him to visit Shaolin Temple in Hana Province to inherit Giwamon-ken (義和門拳: Yi He Men Quan) letting Dōshin Sō become the 21st master.
On 9 August in 1945 the Soviet Army invaded Manchuria and he was forced to live under the occupation of the Soviet Army. Finally, he recognized and understood the "nature of the human being". According to his book, this is extremely important since the politics, law and living are all conducted by human beings.
After coming back from China, he thought he would establish a cram school for the young people. He was stationed in the small town called Tadotsu in Shikoku in Japan to teach Buddhist philosophy. He established Shorinji Kempo to take the concept of ken-zen ichinyo by following Bodhidharma and made use of techniques he learned in China. (source: a book "Hiden Shōrinji Kempō" (秘伝少林寺拳法) written by Dōshin Sō, published by Kobun-sha Kappa Books). This promotion and campaign was called as Kongō-zen undō (Kongo-zen campaign) and expanded Shorinji Kempo throughout Japan by his pupils. This campaign and concept was inherited by his daughter Yūki Sō (宗 由貴 Sō Yūki) after his death in 1980 till present. After his death, Dōshin Sō has been called "Kaiso" or the founder and the grand master.
Shorinji Kempo is not a usual budō or a kind of sports to the utmost. It is said to be as a religious gyō among pupils. According to the Buddha's doctrine, the spirit and fleshly body are not separable. Practicing Shorinji Kempo technique and learning its philosophy, it is believed to have firm body like a pair of standing Vajradhara (金剛神: Kongō-shin or 金剛力士 Kongō-rikishi) and never-give-up spirit like Bodhidharma (菩提達磨: Bodai-daruma).
Kempo and zen
Shorinji Kempo incorporates zen for mental training. The trainings of the body consists of 3 categories which are gōhō (hard techniques such as punch, kick), jūhō (soft techniques such as drawing out, throwing) and seihō (correcting techniques such as spine adjustments).
Doshin So recalled in his book that he pursued Bodhidharma for his revelations and the expansion of his fighting techniques (阿羅漢乃拳). He believed this to be originating in India. I He was inspired by seeing representations of this painted on the wall of Byakue-den chapel at Shaolin Temple.
The people who entered Kongō-zen are called pupils (門信徒) and who are practicing Shorinji Kempo are called kenshi (拳士). Kenshi always salute with "gassho-rei" the greetings commonly used among Buddhist pupils. gassho-rei is also "gassho-gamae" stance, the both palms are put together and raised in front of one's face.
1947 established religious entity
1948 established "Nippon Hokuha Shorinji Kempo Society"
1951 started "Kongo Zen Sohonzan Shorinji" (金剛禅総本山少林寺)
1956 established educational entity
1957 established "All Japan Shorinji Kempo Federation"
1963 established "Shorinji Kempo Federation of Japan" as corporate entity
1972 established "World Shorinji Kempo Organization" (WSKO)
1980 Doshin So died
1992 established "Shorinji Kempo Federation Foundation" as a foundation entity
1997 celebrated 50th anniversary
2000 Shorinji Kempo Group organized
2002 Busen (Shorinji Kempo Budo Academy) opened high school
2003 Busen renamed to be Zenrin Gakuen College
2003 designed the new mark so-en and new logo of Shorinji Kempo
2005 migration from manji to so-en
2007 60th annversary
2008 established All Japan Junior HIgh School Shorinji Kempo Federation
2009 Sekai-taikai (global convention) canceled at Indonesia but held as opened taikai
2012 Doshin So's 100th Birth Memorial Taikai, held in Yokohama Japan
(source: w:ja:少林寺拳法, in Japanese)
Mental trainings (3 methods): Kiryoku/kisei/kiai
Goho (hard techniques, 8 methods and 3 traditions): Tsuki/uchi/kiri/keri/kari/fumi/tai/bo Dokko/nyoi/kongo
Juho (soft techniques, 10 methods): Gyaku/nage/katame/shime/tori/ouatsu/nukite/nukimi/shuho/baku
Seiho(correcting methods of body): Seikei/seimyaku/seikotsu/kappo
(source: Shorinji Kempo Kyohan)
Byakuren (白蓮) 8 stances
ichiji-gamae, taiki-gamae, gyaku-taki-gamae, aiki-gamae, fukko-gamae, midare-gamae, byakuren-chudan-gamae or commonly called kaisoku-chudan-gamae, hasso-gamae
Giwa (義和) 9 stances
gassho-gamae, kesshu-gamae, chudan-gamae, gedan-gamae, gyaku-gedan-gamae, manji-gamae, yoko-muso-gamae, tate-muso-gamae nio-gamae
Fujin-ho (body positions)
sei-tai-gamae (both facing with Byakuren-chudan-gamae), tai-gamae (when one with left-front stance, the other takes left-front stance), hiraki-gamae (when one with left-front stance, the other takes right-front stance)
tai-sabaki (body movement)
ukemi (passive defense):
mae-ukemi, ushiro-ukemi, oten-yori-okiagari, dai-sharin
(source: Shorinji Kempo Kyohan)
Embu is a combination of hokei (organized patters of goho and juho techniques) which has 6 sections. Embu is performed in the court, in the gym, at Taikai or other ceremonial occasions. In these hokei patterns one kenshi takes the part of attacker (kōsha 攻者) and one acts as defender (shusha 守者), they then change roles and repeat the technique. After the set form technique the kenshi perform ren-han-ko (連反攻: series of offence after defense) which is a free form counterattack which continues until the original attacker successfully blocks and counters. The juho techniques such as throwing are followed by katame (fixing or pinning techniques) or kime (finishing techniques with various hand strikes or kicks to nerve points).
Embu start with gassho-rei and are performed usually in kumiembu (performed by kenshis in pair), tandoku embu (performed by single kenshi) and dantai embu (performed by 6 or 8 kenshi in a group). The Embu of Shorinji Kempo is famous because of its speed, smoothness and the harmony of power and beauty.
Embu is rated out of 5 (sometimes 3 at preliminary selection) judges having 60 points each for the 6 sections and 40 points each for other comprehensiveness. A possible total of 300 points is the maximum, eliminating the highest and the lowest scores when 5 judges are judging. Kumi-embu and dantai-embu are performed within a time limit of between one and a half to two minutes.
Earlier in the Shorinji Kempo history, there was no regulation in performing embu. In this regard, embu was very powerful and practical since it was performed ad-lib. The most famous pair in the history of embu was Masuomi Nakano and Toshio Misaki whose embu was said to have impressed Doshin So.
(source: w:ja:少林寺拳法, in Japanese)
Earlier in the Shorinji Kempo's history, Unyo-ho was a fighting competition. After many accidents during randori with no headgear, the organization required headgear, body protector (胴) and foul cup. A system of limiting each kenshi to one role of defense or offense was also introduced for the safety of kenshi. Rating will be done not only by attacking points but also from the view point of defense techniques and counterattacks. Also the manner of kenshi is very important and to be considered when scoring.
(source: w:ja:少林寺拳法, in Japanese and Shoriji Kempo Kyohan)
Shorinji Kempo Group
Kongo-zen Sohonzan Shorinji
Shorinji Kempo Foundation Federation
Zenrin Gakuen College
World Shorinji Kempo Organization (WSKO)
SHORINJI KEMPO UNITY
Shorinji Kempo is practiced at 2,900 doin (道院) and branches in 33 countries world wide. Due to the current group president Yuuki So the daughter of Doshin So, Shorinji Kempo is very popular among women and a lot of female kenshi are joining the organization. Shorinji Kempo is practiced at doin (dojo with small altar) private gym, public gym, conference room, athletic fields, parks, etc.
Doin is opened for the public and there are also club activities in each enterprises, public sectors, schools, local sports organizations etc. and they are called branches or shibu (支部).
The British Shorinji Kempo Federation has split from the WSKO following an announcement on the 3 March 2010 by the WSKO that it was dissolving the BSKF.
There still remains a federation and training in the UK affiliated with the World Shorinji Kempo Organisation, namely The United Kingdom Shorinji Kempo Federation [UKSKF].
Qualifications and dan (bukai and hokai)
There are 2 qualifications from 1st dan (1st grade black belt) in order to qualify the steps of body and spiritual training.
Examples of dan and corresponding hokai
1st dan (sho-dan) -> Jun-kenshi
2nd dan (ni-dan) -> Sho-kenshi
3rd dan (san-dan) -> Chu-kenshi
4th dan (yon-dan) -> Sei-kenshi
5th dan (go-dan) -> Dai-kenshi
After having 1st, 2nd and 3rd dan (bukai qualifications), kenshi practicing at doin will automatically have Jun-kenshi, Sho-kenshi and Chu-kenshi (hokai qualifications) Those kenshi practicing at branches will have these corresponding hokai after joining the training at Shorinji Kempo headquarters in Tadotsu town in Kagawa prefecture in Japan.
From 1st dan through 3rd dan, the examinations are held in each prefectural Shorinji Kempo organization basis. However, the special examination will be held only at its headquarters for the qualifications of 4th dan and above. Generally, kenshi with 4th dan (yon-dan) and above is a teacher but kenshi with 5th dan (go-dan) and above is officially called sensei (先生: teacher). Kenshi who obtained 4th dan automatically obtain Sei-kenshi as well.
WSKO's qualifications and conditions are a little different from its Japanese domestic ones.
Arm emblem category colors:
■Red: for doin kenshi
■Blue: for shibu kenshi
■Green: for Zenrin Gakuen College students
■Purple: for WSKO kenshi
Arm emblem title colors: Gold: for master of doin" or "shibu, Silver: for master of doin or shibu with 5th dan or lower, Red: assistant teacher with 3rd dan or above
Also, there is a sokai qualification in Konzo-zen Sohonzan Shorinji the religious entity. Kenshi with 2nd dan and Sho-kenshi will study the Kongo-zen's philosophy and submit application form and thesis.
Shorinji Kempo Headquarters (honbu)
Headquartered in Tadotsu town, Kagawa prefecture (in Shikoku island) in Japan
Hondo (main dojo/hall)
Kodo (lecture hall)
Rensei-dojo (former 1st dojo)
Shokudo (dining room)
Daigan-toh (memorial tower)
Zenrin Gakuen (collegehouse)
The bones and ashes of Doshin So are buried behind Kodo.
Zenrin Gakuen College
Established as an academy following the principles of Shorinji Kempo. The main collegehouse is located at Honbu. The monthly seminar is held in each region for those who cannot attend daily class at Honbu.
From manji (卍: left-facing swastika) to so-en (double circle)
Manji has been used for the mark of Shorinji Kempo as it is used in the Buddhism for many centuries. As both manji mean love (left-facing) and power (right-facing) which symbolize Kongo-zen teaching.
However, the propagation of World Shorinji Kempo Organization (WSKO), it became a big barrier to use. In this regard, WSKO had been using the letter 拳 (ken) in the center of tate-manji (manji guarded by shields) on the emblem or using nagare-manji which meant rounded manji.
In 2005, Shorinji Kempo Group has employed the new mark as a new symbol of world wide Shorinji Kempo organizations to make them unified.
The new mark is called so-en (double circle) and it is said that this is the extreme shape of a pair of manji. The so-en mark is managed and its rights are reserved by SHORINJI KEMPO UNITY.
The so-en mark should be put on:
dogi (Shorinji Kempo wear. tops and bottoms), (lady kenshi can also wear white-based T-shirt for their inner wear under dogi), obi (belts: white, yellow, green, black) and hoi (black gown)
(source: web site of Shorinji Kempo Group)
"Song of Shorinji Kempo" (Hachiro Kasuga)
"Deep Within Each Man" (Phil Perry)
"Hitori Hitori no Kokoro ni Fukaku" (Kengo Kurozumi, Shigeru Matsuzaki)
(source: w:ja:少林寺拳法 in Japanese)
The Killing Machine (少林寺拳法 Shorinji Kempo, leading actor: Sonny Chiba as Doshin So) 1975, Toei Movie, Japan
Karate from Shaolin Temple (aka Karate Connection, 少林寺拳法 ムサシ香港に現わる Shorinji Kempo: Musashi in Hong Kong) 1976