In Sagami bay, off Kanagawa Prefecture, the military ships used radio communications to coordinate their movement and formation.
A search-and-rescue drill also took place with aircraft of the Maritime Self-Defense Force joining in.
The 2 countries have held friendly drills in the past, but this is the first time for them to conduct exercises aimed at improving strategic skills.
Japanese commander Hiroyuki Kasui said India lies at the center of the sea lane that connects Japan with the Middle East and Africa. He added that it's important to deepen bilateral ties through these drills.
Japan's Defense Ministry is aiming to strengthen ties with India to counter China's military buildup.